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Thursday, June 6, 2013

Columnaris disease in fish: a review with emphasis on bacterium-host interactions

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A few snippets:
"An in vivo immersion challenge of F. columnare in chan- nel catfish and goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) revealed decreasing mortality as salinity goes up, with signifi- cantly lower and no mortalities when salinity reaches values of 1.0and between 3 and 9, respectively [79]. If the fish can be adapted to salt levels of at least 1.0, this method could be used as a possible prevent- ive measure in columnaris disease."

"Besides optimizing and adjusting management prac- tices, chemical agents can also be adopted as a prevent- ive approach. Davis concluded that the development or intensification of columnaris disease could be prevented by treating the fish for 20 min in a copper sulfate (CuSO4) bath at 37 mg/L (1:30 000) or by adding copper sulfate to pond water at 0.5 mg/L [4]. Dipping the fish one at a time in a 1:2000 copper-sulfate for one to two minutes was also proven to be effective in the preven- tion of the disease. Rogers suggested the addition of po- tassium permanganate (KMnO4) to the water at 2 mg/L[119]. Darwish et al. also confirmed the prophylactic value of KMnO4 at doses around 2 mg/L [120]. Prophylactic treatment of channel catfish with 15 mg/L chloramine-T reduced fish mortality from a F. columnare infection from 84100% to 614% [121]. Thomas-Jinu and Goodwin demonstrated the efficacy of prophylactic- ally given oxytetracycline against mortality in channel cat- fish and also reported zero mortality for the combination of sulphadimethoxine and ormetoprim in feed prior to bacterial challenge with four highly virulent strains of F. columnare [111]."