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Thursday, December 27, 2012

Propeller washed bead filters 10 cubic foot

Propeller washed bead filters 10 cubic foot 200 gpm. They weigh at least 600 pounds each! Automated backwash, just set and forget.

Tuesday, December 18, 2012

Dinozzo's goldfish 'Kate'

Whose brilliant idea was it to have Tony’s only living companion be a goldfish named after his dead partner? Surprisingly, it was two superfans who came up with the Easter egg! “We had two 13-year-old girls on set one day visiting, and I said, ‘Don’t you think Tony should have a pet?’…and the girls said, ‘Oh, yeah. It’s good if he has someone to talk to.’” explains Weatherly. But as soon as they had landed on an easily maintained pet goldfish, the next challenge was to name it. When the girls came up with “Kate,” it was too perfect to pass up. “So we made it so,” he says.

Episode s10/e10
"You better watch out"

I would have gone one step further and called it 308 the caliber Marine Snipers prefer and are affectionately name "Kate."

Saturday, December 15, 2012

In a Rubbermaid tub of bulkheads...

You can find that odd ball 1 1/2 inch shallow bulkhead.

Monday, December 10, 2012

Entologics Insect production


Entologics is a revolutionary industrial recycling company that uses insects to transform organic waste into insectmeal - a high protein feed ingredient suitable for fish, poultry and hog diet, and compost to feed soil and plants.

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Friday, December 7, 2012

Ciliate ectoparasites (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae/Chilodonellidae) on gills of Carassius auratus from the Yangtze River, China, with the description of Trichodina luzhoues sp. n.


Three species of the genus Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1838 and one species of the genusChilodonella Strand, 1926 were collected from gills of Carassius auratus. They areTrichodina luzhoues sp. n., Trichodina mutabilis Kazubski and Migala, 1968, Trichodina reticulata Hirschman and Partsch, 1955, and Chilodonella hexasticha Kiernik, 1909. T. luzhoues sp. n. is a medium-sized trichodinid, and its denticles are very distinctive: the blade is narrow rhombus shaped, the section connecting the blade and central part is long and very thin; the section connecting the central part and ray is short and very thick. Ch. hexasticha is a new record in China.

Parasitol Res (2012) 111:433439 DOI 10.1007/s00436-012-2859-0
Ciliate ectoparasites (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae/ Chilodonellidae) on gills of Carassius auratus from the Yangtze River, China, with the description of Trichodina luzhoues sp. n.
Yinheng Hu
Received: 14 July 2011 / Accepted: 7 February 2012 / Published online: 29 February 2012 # Springer-Verlag 2012
Abstract Three species of the genus Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1838 and one species of the genus Chilodonella Strand, 1926 were collected from gills of Carassius auratus. They are Trichodina luzhoues sp. n., Trichodina mutabilis Kazubski and Migala, 1968, Trichodina reticulata Hirschman and Partsch, 1955, and Chilodonella hexasticha Kiernik, 1909. T. luzhoues sp. n. is a medium-sized trichodinid, and its denticles are very distinctive: the blade is narrow rhombus shaped, the section connecting the blade and central part is long and very thin; the section connecting the central part and ray is short and very thick. Ch. hexasticha is a new record in China.
About ten trichodinds have been found from Carassius auratus so far, such as Trichodina oviformis Chen, 1955, Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963, Trichodina carassii Li, 1990, Trichodina paranigra Tong, Zhao and Chen, 2004, Trichodina pachyhamata Tang and Zhao, 2005, Trichodina subtilihamata Tang, Zhao and Tao, 2007, Trichodina bev- icirra Tong and Zhao, 2010, and so on. Two Chilodonellids, Chilodonella cyprini (Hofer 1906; André 1912; Bespalyj 1950; Krascheninnikow 1952; 1953; Chen 1955; Smirnova et al. 1964; Grabda 1971) and C. hexasticha (André 1912), have been reported from C. auratus.
The present paper deals with three ciliates belonging to the genus Trichodina Ehrenberg, 1838 and one ciliate of the genus Chilodonella Strand, 1926 collected from gills of C.
Y. Hu (*) Luzhou Vocational & Technical College, Luzhou 646005 Sichuan, Peoples Republic of China e-mail:
auratus. They are Trichodina luzhoues sp. n., Trichodina mutabilis Kazubski and Migala, 1968, Trichodina reticulata Hirschman and Partsch, 1955 and Chilodonella hexasticha Kiernik, 1909.
Materials and methods
The host C. auratus (L.) that was more than 1 year old was obtained in 2009 from the Yangtze River at Luzhou, Sichuan, China (28°51N, 105°23E), which is the longest river in China.
Gill scrapings were made from the hosts. Smears with ciliates were air dried and then the slides with ciliates were impregnated with Klein's dry silver impregnation technique (Klein 1958). The nuclear apparatus was shown using methyl green-pyronin staining (Foissner 1991). All photomicro- graphs and illustration drawings were made with the help of a camera (Motic DMBA300B) at ×100 magnification with oil immersion lens and software Motic Images Advanced 3.2 and CorelDraw X3. The statistics were obtained with Micro- soft Excel 2003.
All measurements are presented in micrometers (μm). In each case, minimum and maximum values are given, followed in parentheses by the arithmetic mean and standard deviation. In the case of the number of radial pins/denticle and denticles of the trichodinid and number of kineties of the chilodonellid, the mode is given rather than the arithme- tic mean with the number of specimens examined given in parentheses. The body diameter of trichodinid is measured as the adhesive disc plus the border membrane. The meas- urements of trichodinid follow the uniform specific charac- teristics proposed by Lom (1958) while the method proposed by Van As and Basson (1989) was followed for denticle description, as shown in Fig. 1.
Parasitol Res (2012) 111:433439
Fig. 1 Diagram to illustrate denticle structure and construction of X- and Y-axes as fixed references for description of denticles (after Van As and Basson 1989). AB, apex of blade; AM, anterior margin of blade; AR, apophysis of ray (0 thorn); B, blade; BA, apophysis of blade; CA, central of adhesive disc; CB, section connecting blade and central part; CC, section connecting central part and ray; CCP, central conical part; CP, central part; DC, deepest point of curve; DS, distal surface of blade; PM, posterior margin of blade; PP, posterior projection; PR, point of ray; R, ray; SA, section of central part above X-axis; SB, section of central part below X-axis; TP, tangent point
The position of the micronucleus of trichodinid is given relative to the arch-shaped macronucleus, according to the format described by Lom (1958), which was based on the system originally proposed by Dogiel (1940). In this system, the micronucleus is situated in one of three positions relative to the terminations of the arms of the macronucleus: (1) externally, near the right termination (+y); (2) externally, between the two terminations (y); and (3) internally, near the right termination (y1).
Trichodina luzhoues sp. n.
Taxonomic summary
Species: T. luzhoues sp. n. Family: Trichodinidae Claus, 1874 Type Host: Carassius auratus (L.) Fish Family: Cyprinidae Type Locality: Luzhou, Sichuan, China (28°51N, 105°23E) Location: Gills of Carassius auratus (L.) Date of Sampling: 7/2009 Etymology: The specific epithet luzhouesis coined
from the name of Luzhou,Sichuan, China. Reference Material: Holotype, slide LZY109/2009, and
paratype slides LZY112/2009, LZY113/2009 are deposited in the Biological Laboratory of Luzhou Vocational & Tech- nical College.
The following is a description of a medium-sized, freshwater trichodinid: body diameter, 36.661.0 (50.3 ± 7.6); adhesive disc, 28.148.7 (40.5 ± 6.6) (see Figs. 25, 6; Table 1); dentic- ulate ring, 18.131.2 (25.2 ± 4.7); border membrane, 4.16.2 (4.9 ± 0.6); denticle number, 2129 (25); radial pins per
Figs. 25 Photomicrographs of T. luzhoues sp. n. from C. auratus, after dry silver impregnation (2, 3, 4) and green-pyronin staining (5). 23, adhesive discs; 4, adoral ciliary spiral; 5, nuclear, MA macronucleus; MI micronucleus (scale bars020 μm)
Results and discussions
Parasitol Res (2012) 111:433439
denticle, 56 (5); denticle span, 9.717.1 (13.3 ± 2.6); denticle length, 4.17.7 (6.0 ± 1.2); the central zone of adhesive disc clear; the blade is narrow rhombus shaped; and blade length, 3.07.8 (5.3 ± 1.3). Distal surface of blade is short, tangent point rounded. The anterior margin of blade is approximately parallel to curves of posterior margin of blade, forming almost L shape; apex of blade touches Y + 1-axis, some crosses Y + 1-axis, apoph- ysis of blade barely seen; section connecting the blade and central part is long and very thin. The central part is well developed with rounded point fitting tightly into preceding denticle, extending about half towards the Y 1-axis. Section of central part above X-axis is less than the section of central part below X-axis in shape. The central part width is 1.24.5 (2.3± 0.7). The section connecting central part and ray is very thick. The ray is directed towards the center of adhesive disc. The point of the ray is sharp or rounded. Ray length is 3.78.3 (5.7±1.3). Adoral ciliary spiral makes a turn of 407420°. Macronucleus is horseshoe shaped, elongated, and with characteristic dilations at both ends; external diameter is 31.335.1 (33.2±1.8). Micronu- cleus is spherical; diameter is c.3.3, situated in y1 position.
About ten trichodinds have been found from C. auratus so far, but T. luzhoues sp. n. is obviously different from them (see Figs. 68 and Table 1). T. luzhoues sp. n. only resembles Trichodina cooperi Poynton and Lom, 1989 obtained from skin, fins of Gadus morhua L. found in Nova, Scotia, Cana- dia, and Trichodina galyae Lom and Laird, 1969 obtained from the gills of Cyelopterus lumpus found in Canada.
T. luzhoues sp. n. is different from T. galyae by the shape of denticle and some other measurements. (1) The new species is smaller than T. galyae, for example, body diam- eter (36.661.0 vs. 7085), adhesive disc (28.148.7 vs. 4865), and denticulate ring (18.131.2 vs. 3042). (2) In the case of the new species, the posterior tip of the central part extends almost halfway to Y1-axis, but in the case of T. galyae, it almost touches Y1-axis. (3) The ray is thicker in the new species than in T. galyae. (4) Morphometic data of the new species also varies when they are compared with those of T. galyae, e.g., radial pins per denticle (56 vs. 1012), denticle length (4.17.7 vs. 10.5; see Table 1).
Figs. 68 Diagrammatic drawings of the denticles of trichodinid cil- iophorans.6, T. luzhoues sp. n.; 7, T. galyae; 8, T. cooperi
T. luzhoues sp. n. is clearly distinguished from T. cooperi too. (1) The new species is smaller than T. cooperi, i.e., body diameter (36.661.0 vs. 95122), adhesive disc (28.148.7 vs. 82107), and denticulate ring (18.131.2 vs. 4967). (2) The shapes of blade are different in the two trichodinids. The section connecting the blade and the central part is very thin in the new species but thick in T. cooperi. (3) The ray parallels Y-axis and directs towards the center of adhesive disc in the new species, but it slants backward and is slightly forward curved in T. cooperi. (4) Morphometic data of the new species also varies when they are compared with those of T. cooperi, for instance, border membrane (4.16.2 vs. 6.48.9), radial pins per denticle (56 vs. 79) denticle span (9.717.1 vs. 23.632.5), denticle length (4.17.7 vs. 20.424.5), blade length (3.07.8 vs. 7.510.0), central part width (1.24.5 vs. 3.26.3), ray length (3.78.3 vs. 10.219.1), and adoral ciliary spiral (407420 vs. 370390; see Table 1).
T. mutabilis Kazubski and Migala, 1968
The following is a description of a large-sized freshwa- ter trichodinid (see Figs. 910 and Fig. 13): body di- ameter, 77.597.0 (84.4±5.8); adhesive disc, 61.377.0 (67±4.3); central area is not clear; denticulate ring, 38.149.1 (42.3 ± 3.0); border membrane, 5.89.9 (8.3±1.1); denticle number, 2527 (27); and radial pins per denticle, 67 (6). Blade is prismatic, long, and narrow. Tan- gent point is sharp. Distal surface of blade is straight and lower than tangent point. Anterior margin of blade is forming arch curve, parallel to posterior margin of blade, apex of blade touching Y+1-axis, and apophysis of blade is barely seen. Central part is narrow with rounded point fitting tightly into preceding denticle, almost extending half way to Y1-axis. Shapes of the central part above and below X-axis are dissim- ilar. Width of central part is 1.01.5 (1.3±0.2). Ray is slim, straight, and slanted forward, forming an angle of about 30° with Y+1-axis. Adoral ciliary is spiral, 410430°.
T. mutabilis was originally described by Kazubski and Migala from Poland in 1968. Since then, T. mutabilis has been reported from various places in Eastern Europe, For- mer USSR, South Africa, Israel, and India (Lom 1970; Migala 1971; Kashkovsky 1974; Jusupov and Urazbaev 1980; Basson and Van As 1994; Mitra and Bandyopadhyay 2005; Dove and Donoghue 2005).The denticles of my ma- terial resemble those reported by Kazubski and Migala (1968) in winter.
Parasitol Res (2012) 111:433439
Figs. 912 Photomicrographs of the silver nitrate impregnated of Trichodina spp. 910, T. mutabilis Kazubski and Migala, 1968; 1112, T. reticulata Hirschman and Partsch, 1955 (scale bars020 μm)
T. reticulata Hirschman and Partsch, 1955
The following is a description of a middle-sized freshwater trichodinid, cap shaped (see Figs. 1112 and Fig. 14): body
diameter, 47.752.3 (49.9 ± 1.8); adhesive disc, 36.940.8 (38.7±1.5); denticulate ring, 24.027.6 (25.7±1.1); border membrane, 10.811.6(11.2 ± 0.3); denticle number, 2225 (24); radial pins, per denticle 911 (10); denticle length, 10.813.5 (12.2 ± 0.9); denticle span, 5.17.1(6.1 ± 0.6); cen- tral area with granules consists of 1316 (14) cell-like
Table 1 Morphometric comparison of T. luzhoues sp. n. and T. galyae, T. cooperi (measurements in micrometers)
Trichodinid species
Host Locality Site References No. of specimens measured Body diameter
Adhesive disc Denticulate ring Border membrane Denticle number Radial pins/denticle Denticle span Denticle length Blade length Central part width Ray length
Adoral ciliary spiral
Trichodina luzhoues sp. n.
Carassius auratus
Luzhou, China Gills Present study 20
36.661.0 (50.3±7.6) 28.148.7 (40.5±6.6) 18.131.2 (25.2±4.7) 4.16.2 (4.9±0.6) 2134 (25)
56 (5) 9.717.1 (13.3±2.6) 4.17.7 (6.0±1.2) 3.07.8 (5.3±1.3) 1.24.5 (2.3±0.7) 3.78.3 (5.7±1.3) 407420°
T. galyae
Cyelopterus lumpus
Canadian Gills Lom and Laird 1969 81 (7085) 54 (4865) 35 (3042) 5.56 27 (2528) 1012 10.5 7 3 78
T. cooperi
Gadus morhua
Nova, Scotia, Canadia Skin, fins Poynton and Lom 1989
110 (95122) 95 (82107) 59 (4967) 7.4 (6.48.9) 27 (2429) 79
28.5 (23.632.5) 21.5 (20.424.5) 8.6 (7.510.0) 4.8 (3.26.3) 15.4 (10.219.1) 380° (370390°)
Parasitol Res (2012) 111:433439
Figs. 1314 Diagrammatic drawings of the denticles of trichodinid ciliophorans 13, T. mutabilis; 14, T. reticulata
structures, giving a reticulated appearance. Tangent point is distinctly round and head of blade is almost bulbous at this point. Anterior margin of blade is parallel to curves of posterior margin of blade; apex of blade extends beyond Y +1-axis; posterior margin of blade is with deep curve, form- ing almost C-shape; apophysis of blade is unobvious; sec- tion connecting blade and central part is thin and short. Blade length is 3.46.2(5.1 ± 0.8). The central part is well developed, short and stout, of same thickness throughout, extending slightly only beyond Y-axis, and fitting tightly into preceding denticle with blunt rounded point. The
section of central part above and below X-axis is similar in shape, central part width is 1.72.5(2.1±0.3). The section connecting central part and ray is very short, the apophysis of ray is sharp, the ray is thick, the point of ray is blunt rounded, and ray length is 4.45.5(5±0.4). Adoral ciliary is spiral, 400410°.
T. reticulata was originally described by Hirschmann 1955. T. reticulata has been reported from Former USSR, Eastern Euope, South Africa, Asia, and the USA (Lom 1960; Chen 1963; Lom and Hoffman 1964; Lom et al. 1976; Grigoryan and Stein 1981; Kazubski 1982, 1988; Basson et al. 1983; Albaladejo and Arthur 1989; Basson and Van As 1993). This species is clearly recognizable based on the distinct shape of the denticles, and granules as cell-like structures in the central area. T. reticulata described in this paper repre- sents one of the lowest ranges of body dimensions reported so far. It was reported by Chen in China in 1963, but photomicrographs of the trichodinid were not provided.
Chilodonella hexasticha Kiernik, 1909
The chilodonellid body is flattened at the ventral (oral) side, the dorsal side is rounded in shape (see Figs. 1518). Body
Figs. 1518 Photomicrographs of the silver nitrate impregnated of C. hexasticha (scale bars020 μm)
Parasitol Res (2012) 111:433439
length is 60.591.6 (75.5±2.4)μm, width is 53.977.8 (62.2± 1.7)μm. The ciliature of the ventral body side is composed of a short preoral kinety and two systems of kineties. The left and right system of kineties is conspicuously separated by a gla- brous area. In the anterior part of this zone is the oral opening. Kineties is loosely arranged and the distances between them is not equal. The right system consists of 79 (8) kineties and 13 (2) postoral kineties. The two outermost rows begin more anteriorly surrounding at front of the kineties of the left system. The left system consists of 78(7) kineties. In the system are short rows at the inner side in the posterior as well as outer side in the anterior part of the body. Others exist between the two kineties.
Macronucleus is large and oval (see Fig. 16), length is 10.212.8(11.5±1.2)μm, width is 7.58.9 (8.2±1.3)μm. Micronucleus is not visible.
Chilodonella cyprini and Ch. hexasticha were described in the first decade of twentieth century. Ch. hexasticha has been reported from Former USSR, Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and the USA (Kiernik 1909; Prost 1952; Kazubski and Migala 1974; Lom et al. 1976; Wierzbicka 1997). However, descriptions of Ch. cyprini and Ch. hexasticha were not precise due to imperfect methods of study used at that time, so the distinctness of both species was questioned, before Kazubski and Migala (1974) described Ch. cyprini and Ch. hexasticha in detail and expounded the differences between them. There are differences between Ch. cyprini and Ch. hex- asticha by Kazubski and Migala: (1) These species differ mainly by the number of kineties, which is larger in Ch. cyprini and smaller in Ch. hexasticha. (2) The differences concern the arrangement of kineties. In Ch. cyprini, the kineties are close one to the other, lying in nearly equal distances, while in Ch. hexasticha the kineties are loosely arranged and the distances between them are not equal. Especially the inner kineties of the right system are outstanding, lying in much greater distances then the other kineties of both systems. (3) There are also some differences in the number of the postoral kineties (56 in Ch. cyprini and only 13 in Ch. hexasticha). (4) Ch. cyprini most frequently occurs on young fishes, on their gills and skin, while Ch. hexasticha occurs usually on gills of older fishes.
The chilodonellid in this paper is obvious Ch. hexasticha, but its body size is larger than that of individuals in other populations of Ch. hexasticha. It is a new record in China.
Acknowledgements This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Luzhou (project no. 06112 and project no. 2010-S-21). I
would like to thank Dr. Chengwen Li for his excellent technical assistance in the laboratory.
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Ohio company produces fly larvae as fishmeal replacement

Fish love to eat flies, but can mass-produced fly larvae 
replace fishmeals in fish feeds?

An Ohio company claims that it is ready to
answer that question using protein derived from soldier fly
larvae. '
Enviroflight was formed by Chief Executive Officer Glen
Courtright in 2009 and now has a production-and-research
operation that employs about 10 people in Yellow Springs,
where the company is planning to install a large larvae-based
feed production unit.

According to Courtright, the current operation has
overcome a number of obstacles during the development of
various larvae-based diets and the scaling-up of the facilities
and production.

"We have the ability to produce, as a finished formulated
feed (for various species), upwards to about 1,000 tonnes a
year (of fly-based feed) out of our present research facility,"
said Courtright, "and we're getting ready to go to large scale.
We think the future is optimistic."

Courtright said he's applied for several patents for the
larvae production and feed-manufacturing processes so he's
reluctant to give too much detail about the program and

The company's research is concentrated on the soldier fly
and the use of its larvae for fish-oil-light and fishmeal-free
feeds for tilapia, basa, catfish, freshwater prawns and red-claw
crayfish. Additionally, the company is starting to look into a
larvae-based feed for rainbow trout.

To date, Enviroflight has produced soldier fly larvae using
dried distillers' grains with soluble (DDGS) and brewers'
grains - a diet that soldier flies can live on exclusively.
By not using animal manure or food scraps as food
sources for the larvae, production results in zero odor,
pathogens and waste.

Dependent upon temperature and
environmental controls, the process proceeds at the
speed of the lifecycle of the soldier fly - about 33

"Eggs are laid on day one, and on day three they
hatch; and at about one to two weeks they go into
the production area," Courtright explained.

He added that one of the advantages of very
high-density larvae production is that the insects
and larvae generate considerable amounts of heat.
T he facilities still have to be heated during winter in
Ohio, but the heat from the insects helps markedly.
Courtright said the larvae are harvested when
they're around.08-.09g, each measuring maybe
about a centimetre long.

"We can produce, in one faci lity, about 15-
20 tonnes of insect larvae a year, on a small area
of 1,000 square feet," said Courtright. Another
advantage of the Enviroflight system is that the
company uses not only the larvae but also the waste
the flies and larvae leave behind, known as frass.

He indicated that it's taken "three years of
research and a lot of money and heartache (over
repeated failures)" to refine the process and feels the
developed system can be used anywhere in the world
to grow fish for an ever-increasing global population.

"We're constantly running feed trials and
working on diet formulations for different fish,
because each different species requires a differentdiet, 
and the amino and fatty acids to be just the right
balance," said Courtright. We've eliminated the fish oil in 
tilapia and basa too."

"We don't have any fish meal at all in our diets. In most
cases we don't have fish oils. T he prawn diet is zero fish oil
"We really think that insect-based technologies are the
way to go (for the aquaculture industry), if we can do it clean
- and we're proving we can," he said.
- Quentin Dodd •